What Is Marketing?
The AMAs definitions of marketing and marketing research are reviewed and reapproved/modified every three years by a panel of five scholars who are active researchers.
Definition of Marketing
Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. (Approved 2017)
Definition of Marketing Research
Marketing research is the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through informationinformation used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes the results, and communicates the findings and their implications. (Approved 2017)
Definition of Brand
Abrandis a name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one sellers goods or service as distinct from those of other sellers.
ISO brand standardsaddthat a brand is an intangible asset that is intended to create distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefit/values.
Types of Marketing
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA),influencer marketingfocuses on leveraging individuals who have influence over potential buyers and orienting marketing activities around these individuals to drive a brand message to the larger market.
Ininfluencer marketing, rather than marketing directly to a large group of consumers, a brand inspires or compensatesinfluencers(which can include celebrities, content creators, customer advocates, and employees) to get the word out on their behalf.
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA),relationship marketingrefers to strategies and tactics for segmenting consumers to build loyalty.
Relationship marketingleveragesdatabase marketing,behavioral advertisingandanalyticsto target consumers precisely and create loyalty programs.
Viral marketingis amarketingphenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message.
Nicknamed viral because the number of people exposed to a message mimics the process of passing a virus or disease from one person to another.
Green marketingrefers to the development andmarketingofproductsthat are presumed to be environmentally safe (i.e., designed to minimize negative effects on the physical environment or to improve its quality).
This term may also be used to describe efforts to produce, promote, package, and reclaim products in a manner that is sensitive or responsive to ecological concerns.
Keyword marketinginvolves placing amarketingmessage in front ofusersbased on the specifickeywords and phrasesthey are using to search.
A key advantage of this method is that it gives marketers the ability to reach the right people with the right message at the right time. For many marketers, keyword marketing results in the placement of anadwhen certain keywords are entered.
Note that inSEO, this term refers to achieving top placement in the search results themselves.
Guerilla marketingdescribes an unconventional and creativemarketingstrategy intended to get maximum results from minimal resources.
Outbound marketingis a newer term for traditional marketing coined when the terminbound marketingcame into popular use.
In outbound marketing, the marketer initiates contact with the customer through methods such as TV, radio and digital display advertising.It is often used to influence consumer awareness and preference for a brand.
Inbound marketingis marketing in which customers initiate contact with the marketer in response to various methods used to gain their attention. These methods include email marketing, event marketing, content marketing and web design.
One purpose ofinbound marketing, which includescontent marketing, is to establish the business as a source for valuable information and solutions to problems, thereby fostering customer trust and loyalty.
Search Engine Optimization
Search engine optimization(SEO) is the process of developing amarketing/technical plan to improve visibility within one or moresearch engines. Typically, this consists of two elements.
On a technical side, SEO refers to ensuring that awebsitecan be indexed properly by the major search engines and includes the use of the proper keywords, content, code, and links.
On the marketing side, SEO refers to the process of targeting specific keywords where the site should win in searches. This can be done by modifying a website to score well in the algorithms search engines use to determine rank, or by purchasing placement with individual keywords. Often, SEO programs are a blend of several elements and strategies.
Note: WhenSEOis used to describe an individual, it stands for search engine optimizer.
Content marketingis a technique of creating and distributingvaluable,relevantand consistent content to attract and acquire a clearly definedaudiencewith the objective of driving profitablecustomeraction.
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA),content marketinginvolves various methods to tell the brand story. More and more marketers are evolving their advertising to content marketing/storytelling to create more stickiness and emotional bonding with the consumer.
4 Ps of Marketing
Aproductis defined as a bundle of attributes (features, functions, benefits, and uses) capable of exchange or use, usually a mix of tangible and intangible forms.
Thus a product may be an idea, a physical entity (goods), or aservice, or any combination of the three. It exists for the purpose of exchange in the satisfaction of individual and organizational objectives.
While the term products and services is occasionally used,productis a term that encompasses bothgoodsandservices.
Priceis the formal ratio that indicates the quantity of money,goods, orservicesneeded to acquire a given quantity of goods or services.
It is the amount acustomermust pay to acquire aproduct.
Place (or Distribution)
Distribution refers to the act of marketing and carrying products to consumers. It is also used to describe the extent of market coverage for a given product.
In the4 Ps, distribution is represented byplaceorplacement.
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA),promotion marketingincludes tactics that encourage short-term purchase, influence trial and quantity of purchase, and are very measurable in volume, share and profit.
Examples includecoupons,sweepstakes, rebates,premiums, special packaging, cause-related marketing andlicensing.
Visit the Marketing Dictionary for additional definitions.
- Bernard Jaworski, Peter F. Drucker Chair in Management and the Liberal Arts, Claremont Graduate University
- Richard Lutz, J.C. Penney Professor of Marketing, University of Florida
- Greg W. Marshall, Charles Harwood Professor of Marketing and Strategy, Rollins College
- Linda Price, Philip H. Knight Chair and Professor of Marketing, University of Oregon
- Rajan Varadarajan, University Distinguished Professor and Distinguished Professor of Marketing and Ford Chair in Marketing & E-Commerce, Texas A&M University
How to Create a Digital Marketing Strategy
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What Is SEO Marketing?
SEO marketing is a subset of digital marketing that involves the optimization of websites and web pages for major search engines like Google. As these search engines became a predominant way of finding just about anything, various practices have emerged to help organizations improve the visibility of their digital assets. The term search engine optimization 
By Peter J. Danaher The internet has enabled many business developments, but it has turned media allocation and planning on its head. In traditional mass media like television, advertisers can purchase a commercial slot and expect large audiences. However, many of those reached are not interested in the advertised product or service, so a large